The socio-educational model[ edit ] R.
The crucially important debate regarding what types of educational interventions are likely to reverse the underachievement of many bilingual students has degenerated into the adversarial discourse of courtroom lawyers with each side trying to "spin" the interpretation of research to fit its strongly held beliefs.
From the time of my initial publications on this topic, I have argued that the research on bilingual education both in North America and from around the world is highly consistent in what it shows.
I have also suggested that the research data can be largely accounted for by three theoretical principles that permit accurate predictions regarding student outcomes from any well-implemented bilingual program.
I am therefore disturbed to see what I have written sometimes misunderstood and misapplied by advocates of bilingual education and almost invariably distorted beyond recognition by opponents of bilingual education.
I have also argued e.
Cummins, a, that bilingual education by itself is no panacea. The reasons why some groups of culturally diverse students experience long-term persistent underachievement have much more to do with issues of status and power than with linguistic factors in isolation.
Thus, educational interventions that challenge the low status that has been assigned to a linguistic or cultural group are much more likely to be successful than those that reinforce this low status.
In this paper I restate what my own empirical research and that of many others is clearly saying and also outline the theoretical principles that permit us to explain these findings and predict the outcomes of various types of programs for bilingual students.
Then I attempt to move beyond the divisive discourse of courtroom lawyers to search for areas of agreement in the perspectives and interpretations of both opponents and advocates of bilingual education.
I believe that there are many such areas of agreement and focusing on them might provide a starting point for reconstructing a viable research-based approach to reversing a legacy of school failure.
Research Findings on Language Learning and Bilingual Education The research is unambiguous in relation to three issues: This is frequently exacerbated by the temptation for teachers to encourage students to give up their first language and switch to English as their primary language of communication; however, the research evidence suggests that this retards rather than expedites academic progress in English Cummins, a; Dolson, The term "additive bilingualism" refers to the form of bilingualism that results when students add a second language to their intellectual tool-kit while continuing to develop conceptually and academically in their first language.
The educational implication of these research studies is that the development of literacy in two or more languages entails linguistic and academic benefits for individual students in addition to preparing them for a working environment in both domestic and international contexts that is increasingly characterized by diversity and where knowledge of additional languages represents a significant human resource.
Interdependence of First and Second Languages The interdependence principle has been stated as follows Cummins, a: To the extent that instruction in Lx is effective in promoting proficiency in Lx, transfer of this proficiency to Ly will occur provided there is adequate exposure to Ly either in school or environment and adequate motivation to learn Ly.
Consider the following research data that support this principle: This is borne out in the review of research carried out by Rossell and Baker as well as by the 30 chapters describing an extremely large number of bilingual programs in countries around the globe in the volume edited by Cummins and Corson It is worth noting, as Genesee points out, that these findings also apply to the relationships among very dissimilar languages in addition to languages that are more closely related, although the strength of relationship is often reduced e.
This supports a prominent current view that native-language development can enhance ESL reading. Furthermore, the relationship between first and second language literacy skills suggests that effective development of primary language literacy skills can provide a conceptual foundation for long-term growth in English literacy skills.
Misconceptions and Distortions The research data are very specific in what they are saying: Thus, premature exit from a bilingual program into a typical mainstream program is likely to result in underachievement in both languages.
Bilingual students will usually require most of the elementary school years to bridge the gap between themselves and native speakers of English; this is, in part, due to the obvious fact that native speakers are naturally also progressing in their command of academic English year by year.
In fact, the research suggests that students may experience some linguistic and cognitive benefits as a result of developing literacy in both languages. Misconceptions Among Some Bilingual Program Advocates These psychoeducational data do not show, nor do they claim to show, that all forms of bilingual education are more effective than all forms of all-English instruction.
In fact, I have argued for more then 20 years that quick-exit transitional bilingual education is an inferior model based on an inadequate theoretical assumption what I have termed the linguistic mismatch assumption Cummins, a.
Any adequate bilingual program should strive to develop, to the extent possible, literacy in both languages; transitional bilingual programs, however, almost by definition, aspire to monolingualism rather than bilingualism.
The psychoeducational data also say nothing about the language in which reading instruction should be introduced.
A survey I conducted of bilingual programs in Ireland which catered both to Irish L1 and English L1 students showed that teachers were equally divided with respect to whether reading should be taught first in L1, L2 or both simultaneously Cummins, d, and I would agree that under different circumstances all three of these approaches are probably viable.
Thus, I would expect those who strongly advocate direct instruction in phonics also to support initial reading instruction in the native language for these students.
This approach can work well for bilingual students, as the data from two-way bilingual immersion programs demonstrate e. However, in these cases, there is a coherent instructional program from kindergarten through grade 6 with L1 literacy instruction continued through elementary school as the proportion of English instruction increases.A community-centered approach to character education that attempts to apply what the students learn in the classroom to everyday life.
Character Education Programs Programs which teach students about different positive character traits and how to apply them to their lives.
3 Copyright © by The Psychological Corporation 13 YStudy skills are behaviors that facilitate the processing of new material and taking tests YInterpersonal. ABSTRACT. Optimism can be defined in terms of positive and negative expectations regarding future life events.
The aims of this study were to adapt and validate the Revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R) for the Brazilian population, verify its psychometric characteristics, assess whether there are gender differences, and verify its relationships with self-esteem and personality.
Beyond Adversarial Discourse: Searching for Common Ground in the Education of Bilingual Students Presentation to the California State Board of Education. The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus.
Apr 08, · It claims three basic psychological needs have to be satisfied in order to achieve intrinsic motivation.
These are the needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness. This study aims to provide a review on how these basic psychological needs are encouraged in undergraduate students so they can be transferred to the clinical teaching environment.