Hipster s subculture and Hip slang Hot jazz artist Harry Gibson at the pianocoiner of the word hipster in the s The term was coined during the Jazz Agewhen "hip" emerged as an adjective to describe aficionados of the growing scene.
It entered English in the nineteenth century. However, historians agree that the concept predates the label invented to describe it, encompassing the various meanings ascribed to humanitas, which included both benevolence toward one's fellow humans and the values imparted by bonae litterae or humane learning literally "good letters".
Those who earnestly desire and seek after these are most highly humanized.
For the desire to pursue of that kind of knowledge, and the training given by it, has been granted to humanity alone of all the animals, and for that reason it is termed humanitas, or "humanity".
Gellius maintains that this common usage is wrong, and that model writers of Latin, such as Cicero and others, used the word only to mean what we might call "humane" or "polite" learning, or the Greek equivalent Paideia. Yet in seeking to restrict the meaning of humanitas to literary education this way, Gellius was not advocating a retreat from political engagement into some ivory tower, though it might look like that to us.
He himself was involved in public affairs. According to legal historian Richard Bauman, Gellius was a judge as well as a grammarian and was an active participant the great contemporary debate on harsh punishments that accompanied the legal reforms of Antoninus Pius one these reforms, for example, was that a prisoner was not to be treated as guilty before being tried.
Teachers and scholars of Greek and Latin grammar, rhetoric, philosophy, and poetry were called and called themselves "humanists".
For Cicero, a lawyer, what most distinguished humans from brutes was speech, which, allied to reason, could and should enable them to settle disputes and live together in concord and harmony under the rule of law. The designation Religious Humanism refers to organized groups that sprang up during the late-nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
It is similar to Protestantismalthough centered on human needs, interests, and abilities rather than the supernatural. The first Humanist Manifesto was issued by a conference held at the University of Chicago in They identified humanism as an ideology that espouses reasonethicsand social and economic justiceand they called for science to replace dogma and the supernatural as the basis of morality and decision-making.
The coinage gained universal acceptance inwhen German historian and philologist Georg Voigt used humanism to describe Renaissance humanismthe movement that flourished in the Italian Renaissance to revive classical learning, a use which won wide acceptance among historians in many nations, especially Italy.
Inthe author of an anonymous article in a French Enlightenment periodical spoke of "The general love of humanity After the French Revolutionthe idea that human virtue could be created by human reason alone independently from traditional religious institutions, attributed by opponents of the Revolution to Enlightenment philosophes such as Rousseauwas violently attacked by influential religious and political conservativessuch as Edmund Burke and Joseph de Maistreas a deification or idolatry of humanity.
The Oxford English Dictionary records the use of the word "humanism" by an English clergyman in to indicate those who believe in the "mere humanity" as opposed to the divine nature of Christ, i.
Thoughts on " —49states: There has been a persistent confusion between the several uses of the terms: Nasadiya Suktaa passage in the Rig Vedacontains one of the first recorded assertions of agnosticism.
Zarathustra's philosophy in the Gathas lays out a conception of humankind as thinking beings, dignified with choice and agency according to the intellect which each receives from Ahura Mazda God in the form of supreme wisdom.
The idea of Ahura Mazda as a non-intervening deistic god or Great Architect of the Universe was combined with a unique eschatology and ethical system which implied that each person is held morally responsible in the afterlife, for their choices they freely made in life.
Ancient Greece Main article: Ancient Greek philosophy 6th-century BCE pre-Socratic Greek philosophers Thales of Miletus and Xenophanes of Colophon were the first in the region to attempt to explain the world in terms of human reason rather than myth and tradition, thus can be said to be the first Greek humanists.(III, 13) And so, though he refuses to glorify man, though he looks at things straight and sees them clearly, he is still a humanist and one of the most attractively human of them all.
ENGLAND In English literary history the Renaissance extends from the sixteenth century into the late seventeenth; John Milton ( 74) is considered a Renaissance writer. - Many characteristics of the American made society that we live in now demonstrate a utopia, therefore, they also demonstrate a dystopia.
A utopia is a perfect world in which there are no problems like war, disease, poverty, oppression, discrimination, inequality, and other. By the beginning of the sixteenth century, before the deaths of Michelangelo or even Leonardo da Vinci, the renaissance movement in Italy had pretty much run itself out.
In northern Europe, however (in Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, France, and England) humanism was just coming into its o.
Surrealism was a movement in visual art and literature that flourished in Europe between World Wars I and II. The movement represented a reaction against what its members saw as the destruction wrought by the “rationalism” that had guided European culture and politics previously and that had culminated in the horrors of World War I.
Participants were asked to map social network members on a diagram of three concentric circles, placing members regarded as most important in relation to managing their condition in the central circle, less important members in the middle circle, and less important still in the outer circle.
Participants could place as many network members as.
Dada was an artistic and literary movement that began in Zürich, Switzerland. It arose as a reaction to World War I and the nationalism that many thought had led to the war. Influenced by other avant-garde movements - Cubism, Futurism, Constructivism, and Expressionism - its output was wildly diverse, ranging from performance art to poetry, photography, sculpture, painting, and collage.