Leadership and Organizational Behavior Organizational Behavior OB is the study and application of knowledge about how people, individuals, and groups act in organizations. It does this by taking a system approach.
Max Weber embellished the scientific management theory with his bureaucratic management theory which is mainly focused on dividing organizations into hierarchies, establishing strong lines of authority and control. Weber suggested that those organizations develop comprehensive and detailed standard operating procedures for all routinised task.
Scott defines bureaucracy as the existence of a specialized administrative staff. According to Weber, bureaucracy is a particular type of administrative structure developed through rational legal authority.
The literal meaning of bureaucracy is rule by office or by officials. The first characteristic of bureaucratic management theory is job specialization Armstrong, This is whereby jobs are broken down into simple routine and well defined task.
Olivine is one of the organizations that utilize the principle of job specialization such that when one is doing the job of packing some soap, that person will never know how to make the soap. The idea of job specialization brings some advantage to the organization because it produces efficient, repetitive work.
However, the idea of job specialization poses some negative consequences to both the individual employee and the organization as a whole.
For the organization over specialization of employees skills and knowledge prevents them to recognize and to care about problems not in their domain.
For the organization, it inhibits rotation and enhances flexible use of personnel and reduces overall productivity. The other characteristic of bureaucracy is hierarchy of authority Griffin, Hierarchy of command is commonly applicable in army and police whereby the organization is a continuous hierarchy where each level is subject to control by the level above it.
Each position in the hierarchy exists in its own right and job holders have no rights to a particular position. Responsibilities within each level are clearly delineated and each level has its own sphere of competence.
Robbins etal opines that an appointment to an office and the levels of authority that go within, are based solely on the on the grounds of technical competence. Robbins holds the view that, the positive consequence of hierarchy of authority is that it classifies who is in command.
However, the negative consequence of hierarchy of command to the individual employee is that it preventing employees from contributing to decisions, to the organization as a whole is that it allows errors to be hidden and it takes time to implement a change programme. Employment and carrier is also another characteristic of bureaucracy Gorge and Jones, organizations such as Zesa uses the principle of employment and carrier whereby all personnel are selected and promoted on the basis of their technical qualifications and offered a full time carrier.
However, although en employment and carrier is applicable to Zesa and many other organizations, it has got its weaknesses to the individual employee and to the organization as a whole.
To the employee it can restrict the psychological broke of the individual in his or her job.
The disadvantage to the organization is that individuals throughout the company are promoted to their level of incompetence. A formal written record is another characteristic of bureaucracy Robbins etal, Most organizations such as Olivine, National Foods, Colleges to name but a few uses the principle of formal written records.
At National foods administrative acts and decisions are recorded in writing, records keeping provide organizational memory and continuity overtime.
Armstrong, opines that formal written records are used to document all rules, regulations, procedures, decisions and actions taken by the organization and its members to preserve accountability and consistency.
A policy and procedure manual are good examples of formal records. The advantage of formal written records is that is that it creates an organization history that is not depended on individual memory, however, the disadvantage of formal written records is that employees come to see record keeping as an end in itself rather that a means to an end.
The other disadvantage is that recording incidents inhibits flexibility, adaptability and irresponsibleness. Therefore it can be said that bureaucracy is still applicable in modern day organizations although it has some weaknesses. Mondy holds the view that rules and procedures is also among the characteristics of bureaucracy.
This principle is applicable to most if not all modern day organizations because without rules and procedures an organization cannot function well since they will be no Oder.
Unki mines as one of the organizations that use the principle of riles and procedures, all employees are subject to rules and procedures to ensure reliable and predictable behavior. Robbins etal hold the view that management by rules and regulations provides a set of standard operating procedures that facilitates consistency in both organizational and management practices.
For instance when an employee at Unki mines is sick and cannot make it into work that day, he or she must call out to their direct supervisor, any employee who fails to do so will be subject to termination. Robbins etal holds the view that the positive consequence of rules is that employees know what is expected to them.
However, the disadvantages are that it introduces delays, stifles innovation and creativity, it leads to individual and sub unit goal replacing organizational objectives, rules defines acceptable level of performance. At Unki mines procedures and rules are impersonal and applied to managerial non- managerial employees.
At Unki mines managers maintain an impersonal relationship with employees to promote fair and equal treatment of all employees so that unbiased decisions can be made.
Hellriegel etal, opines that impersonality fosters efficiency and reduces bias. However, the negative consequence of impersonality is that it creates a climate of alienation through the firm as employees come to see themselves as small cogs in a wheel.
However, although the bureaucratic theory is still applicable, it cannot go unchallenged as they are some critics that have leveled against it. Scott notes that Weber said authority rest both in the legal incumbency of office and on technical competence. This list of distinguishing characteristics is linked between each other."Transformational leadership," is the most effective style to use in most business situations.
However, you can become a more effective leader by learning about these core leadership theories, and understanding the tools and models associated with each one.
Sep 08, · management and organization behavior for several decades. Leadership is a topic of history of the world is but the biography of great men”, reflected his belief concerning Autocratic leadership is the most extreme form of transactional leadership.
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Leaders from the military, business world and sports have all played crucial impacts on the way we live our lives. Latest breaking news, including politics, crime and celebrity.
Find stories, updates and expert opinion. Bureaucratic organizational structures have many layers of management, cascading down from senior executives to regional managers to departmental managers - all the way down to shift supervisors.
Leadership has a direct cause and effect relationship upon organizations and their success. Leaders determine values, culture, change tolerance and employee motivation. They shape institutional strategies including their execution and effectiveness. Leaders can appear at any level of an institution.