Polis Many thinkers point to the concept of citizenship beginning in the early city-states of ancient Greecealthough others see it as primarily a modern phenomenon dating back only a few hundred years and, for humanity, that the concept of citizenship arose with the first laws. Polis meant both the political assembly of the city-state as well as the entire society. It can be argued that this growth of slavery was what made Greeks particularly conscious of the value of freedom.
Every free action is produced by the concurrence of two causes; one moral, i. When I walk towards an object, it is necessary first that I should will to go there, and, in the second place, that my feet should carry me.
If a paralytic wills to run and an active man wills not to, they will both stay where they are. The body politic has the same motive powers; here too force and will are distinguished, will under the name of legislative power and force under that of executive power.
Without their concurrence, nothing is, or should be, done. We have seen that the legislative power belongs to the people, and can belong to it alone. It may, on the other hand, readily be seen, from the principles laid down above, that the executive power cannot belong to the generality as legislature or Sovereign, because it consists wholly of particular acts which fall outside the competency of the law, and consequently of the Sovereign, whose acts must always be laws.
The public force therefore needs an agent of its own to bind it together and set it to work under the direction of the general will, to serve as a means of communication between the State and the Sovereign, and to do for the collective person more or less what the union of soul and body does for man.
Here we have what is, in the State, the basis of government, often wrongly confused with the Sovereign, whose minister it is. What then is government? An intermediate body set up between the subjects and the Sovereign, to secure their mutual correspondence, charged with the execution of the laws and the maintenance of liberty, both civil and political.
The members of this body are called magistrates or kings, that is to say governors, and the whole body bears the name prince.
It is simply and solely a commission, an employment, in which the rulers, mere officials of the Sovereign, exercise in their own name the power of which it makes them depositaries.
This power it can limit, modify or recover at pleasure; for the alienation of such a right is incompatible with the nature of the social body, and contrary to the end of association. I call then government, or supreme administration, the legitimate exercise of the executive power, and prince or magistrate the man or the body entrusted with that administration.
In government reside the intermediate forces whose relations make up that of the whole to the whole, or of the Sovereign to the State.
This last relation may be represented as that between the extreme terms of a continuous proportion, which has government as its mean proportional.
The government gets from the Sovereign the orders it gives the people, and, for the State to be properly balanced, there must, when everything is reckoned in, be equality between the product or power of the government taken in itself, and the product or power of the citizens, who are on the one hand sovereign and on the other subject.
Furthermore, none of these three terms can be altered without the equality being instantly destroyed. If the Sovereign desires to govern, or the magistrate to give laws, or if the subjects refuse to obey, disorder takes the place of regularity, force and will no longer act together, and the State is dissolved and falls into despotism or anarchy.
Lastly, as there is only one mean proportional between each relation, there is also only one good government possible for a State.
But, as countless events may change the relations of a people, not only may different governments be good for different peoples, but also for the same people at different times. In attempting to give some idea of the various relations that may hold between these two extreme terms, I shall take as an example the number of a people, which is the most easily expressible.
Suppose the State is composed of ten thousand citizens. The Sovereign can only be considered collectively and as a body; but each member, as being a subject, is regarded as an individual: If the people numbers a hundred thousand, the condition of the subject undergoes no change, and each equally is under the whole authority of the laws, while his vote, being reduced to a hundred-thousandth part, has ten times less influence in drawing them up.
The subject therefore remaining always a unit, the relation between him and the Sovereign increases with the number of the citizens. From this it follows that, the larger the State, the less the liberty.
When I say the relation increases, I mean that it grows more unequal. Thus the greater it is in the geometrical sense, the less relation there is in the ordinary sense of the word.
In the former sense, the relation, considered according to quantity, is expressed by the quotient; in the latter, considered according to identity, it is reckoned by similarity. Now, the less relation the particular wills have to the general will, that is, morals and manners to laws, the more should the repressive force be increased.
What is SMSC? SMSC stands for spiritual, moral, social and cultural development. All schools in England must show how well their pupils develop in SMSC. Spiritual. Explore beliefs and experience; respect faiths, feelings and values; enjoy learning about oneself, others and the surrounding world; use imagination and creativity; reflect. Moral and citizenship education are again at the forefront of educational attention with the recent governmental announcements about revisions to the National Curriculum frameworks to and beyond. This book addresses some of the central issues in moral and citizenship education facing teachers today, embedding practical considerations in . An amount that has to be paid or given up in order to get something.. In business, cost is usually a monetary valuation of (1) effort, (2) material, (3) resources, (4) time and utilities consumed, (5) risks incurred, and (6) opportunity forgone in production and delivery of a good or service. All expenses are costs, but not all costs (such as those incurred in acquisition of an income.
The government, then, to be good, should be proportionately stronger as the people is more numerous. On the other hand, as the growth of the State gives the depositaries of the public authority more temptations and chances of abusing their power, the greater the force with which the government ought to be endowed for keeping the people in hand, the greater too should be the force at the disposal of the Sovereign for keeping the government in hand.
I am speaking, not of absolute force, but of the relative force of the different parts of the State. It follows from this double relation that the continuous proportion between the Sovereign, the prince and the people, is by no means an arbitrary idea, but a necessary consequence of the nature of the body politic.
It follows further that, one of the extreme terms, viz. From this we see that there is not a single unique and absolute form of government, but as many governments differing in nature as there are States differing in size.
If, ridiculing this system, any one were to say that, in order to find the mean proportional and give form to the body of the government, it is only necessary, according to me, to find the square root of the number of the people, I should answer that I am here taking this number only as an instance; that the relations of which I am speaking are not measured by the number of men alone, but generally by the amount of action, which is a combination of a multitude of causes; and that, further, if, to save words, I borrow for a moment the terms of geometry, I am none the less well aware that moral quantities do not allow of geometrical accuracy.
The government is on a small scale what the body politic which includes it is on a great one. It is a moral person endowed with certain faculties, active like the Sovereign and passive like the State, and capable of being resolved into other similar relations.
This accordingly gives rise to a new proportion, within which there is yet another, according to the arrangement of the magistracies, till an indivisible middle term is reached, i.Contents of this volume: From the Director. Main Article: "Education for Global Citizenship and Social Responsibility" by Julie Andrzejewski & John Alessio Reponse to Global Citizenship by Richard Brosio.
A conference on "Moral Education and Australian Values" was held in at Monash University. India she must possess five basic skills: understanding, reflection, consultation, decision and action.
There is an obligatory school subject that includes the aspect of values education and Citizenship Culture and Ethics.
It is taught in 7th. Introduction to Education. Measuring Up: The National Report Card on Higher Education; School: The Story of American Public Education from PBS; The Condition of Education: from the National Center of Education Statistics; Foundational Perspectives in Education: by Sally Atkin and Nora Cohen, Oregon State University; The Virtual Library from Schoolwise Press (hundreds of links to articles and.
Choose from one of our schools subscriptions, with over cross-curricular lessons to support the teaching of PSHE, SMSC and Citizenship and develop children’s Spiritual, Moral, Social and Cultural (SMSC) learning, including their understanding of fundamental British Values.
Citizenship education. Citizenship is in the national curriculum and is statutory in secondary schools. It is a natural place for many of the current requirements around SMSC, British values . Theology/Religion Lesson Plans and Resources This page was scanned for broken links and updated on This page contains resources and lesson plans for world religions and religious education, including links to sites of particular interest to Catholic educators.