Of the three types of plays recognized in the Shakespeare First Folio -- Comedies, Histories, and Tragedies -- the last has been the most discussed annnd is clearest in outline. Tragedy must end in some tremendous catastrophe involving in Elizabethan practice the death of the principal character.
Aristotle defined comedy as an imitation of men worse than the average where tragedy was an imitation of men better than the average.
However, the characters portrayed in comedies were not worse than average in every way, only insofar as they are Ridiculous, which is a species of the Ugly.
The Ridiculous may be defined as a mistake or deformity not productive of pain or harm to others; the mask, for instance, that excites laughter is something ugly and distorted without causing pain.
It is in this sense that Dante used the term in the title of his poem, La Commedia. As time progressed, the word came more and more to be associated with any sort of performance intended to cause laughter.
Aristotle's Poetics was translated into Arabic in the medieval Islamic worldwhere it was elaborated upon by Arabic writers and Islamic philosopherssuch as Abu Bischr, and his pupils Al-FarabiAvicennaand Averroes.
They disassociated comedy from Greek dramatic representation and instead identified it with Arabic poetic themes and forms, such as hija satirical poetry.
They viewed comedy as simply the "art of reprehension", and made no reference to light and cheerful events, or to the troubling beginnings and happy endings associated with classical Greek comedy.
After the Latin translations of the 12th centurythe term "comedy" gained a more general meaning in medieval literature. Aristophanes developed his type of comedy from the earlier satyr playswhich were often highly obscene.
He also adds that the origins of comedy are obscure because it was not treated seriously from its inception. Aristotle taught that comedy was generally positive for society, since it brings forth happiness, which for Aristotle was the ideal state, the final goal in any activity.
For Aristotle, a comedy did not need to involve sexual humor. A comedy is about the fortunate rise of a sympathetic character. Aristotle divides comedy into three categories or subgenres: On the contrary, Plato taught that comedy is a destruction to the self. He believed that it produces an emotion that overrides rational self-control and learning.
In The Republiche says that the guardians of the state should avoid laughter, "for ordinarily when one abandons himself to violent laughter, his condition provokes a violent reaction. Also in Poetics, Aristotle defined comedy as one of the original four genres of literature.
The other three genres are tragedyepic poetryand lyric poetry. Literature, in general, is defined by Aristotle as a mimesisor imitation of life. Comedy is the third form of literature, being the most divorced from a true mimesis.
Tragedy is the truest mimesis, followed by epic poetry, comedy, and lyric poetry. The genre of comedy is defined by a certain pattern according to Aristotle's definition.
Comedies begin with low or base characters seeking insignificant aims and end with some accomplishment of the aims which either lightens the initial baseness or reveals the insignificance of the aims.
Early Renaissance forms of comedy[ edit ] Main articles: It is widely considered to be the preeminent work in Italian literature  and one of the greatest works of world literature. It helped establish the Tuscan languagein which it is written, as the standardized Italian language.
InfernoPurgatorioand Paradiso. The narrative describes Dante's travels through HellPurgatoryand Paradise or Heaven while allegorically the poem represents the soul's journey towards God.
The adjective Divina was added by Giovanni Boccaccioand the first edition to name the poem Divina Comedia in the title was that of the Venetian humanist Lodovico Dolce published in by Gabriele Giolito de' Ferrari.
An initial cantoserving as an introduction to the poem and generally considered to be part of the first cantica, brings the total number of cantos to It is generally accepted, however, that the first two cantos serve as a unitary prologue to the entire epic, and that the opening two cantos of each cantica serve as prologues to each of the three cantiche.
A Shakespearean comedy is one that has a happy ending, usually involving marriages between the unmarried characters, and a tone and style that is more light-hearted than Shakespeare's other plays. The figure of Punch derives from the Neapolitan stock character of Pulcinella.
Punch made his first recorded appearance in England in We soon changed Punch's name, transformed him from a marionette to a hand puppet, and he became, really, a spirit of Britain — a subversive maverick who defies authority, a kind of puppet equivalent to our political cartoons.
He just taught us most of it". We in Hollywood owe much to him. FieldsBuster Keaton and the Marx Brothers. Surreal humourTheatre of the Absurdand Absurdist fiction Surreal humour also known as 'absurdist humour'or 'surreal comedy', is a form of humour predicated on deliberate violations of causal reasoning, producing events and behaviours that are obviously illogical.
Constructions of surreal humour tend to involve bizarre juxtapositions, incongruity, non-sequitursirrational or absurd situations and expressions of nonsense. The humour derived gets its appeal from the ridiculousness and unlikeliness of the situation.+ free ebooks online.
Did you know that you can help us produce ebooks by proof-reading just one page a day? Go to: Distributed Proofreaders. Synopsis. The once-great Max Bialystock (Zero Mostel) had once been the toast of Broadway, but now he has been reduced to a washed-up, aging, fraudulent, corruptible, and greedy Broadway producer who barely ekes out a hand-to-mouth existence romancing lascivious, wealthy elderly women ("angels" in theatrical terms) in exchange for money for his next play.
Comedy: An Essay on Comedy by George Meredith. Laughter by Henri Bergson [Wylie Sypher] on heartoftexashop.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Bergson's essay looks at comedy within a wider field of vision, focusing on laughter and on what makes us laugh.4/5(4).
Gmail is email that's intuitive, efficient, and useful.
15 GB of storage, less spam, and mobile access. An Essay on Comedy by George Meredith This etext was prepared from the Archibald Constable and Company edition by David Price, email [email protected] Comedy: Comedy, type of drama or other art form the chief object of which, according to modern notions, is to amuse.
It is contrasted on the one hand with tragedy and on the other with farce, burlesque, and other forms of humorous amusement. The classic conception of comedy.