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Abstract The finished version of the human genome sequence was completed inand this event initiated a revolution in medical practice, which is usually referred to as the age of genomic or personalized medicine. Genomic medicine aims to be predictive, personalized, preventive, and also participative 4Ps.
It offers a new approach to several pathological conditions, although its impact so far has been more evident in mendelian diseases. This article briefly reviews the potential advantages of this approach, and also some issues that may arise in the attempt to apply the accumulated knowledge from genomic medicine to clinical practice in emerging countries.
The advantages of applying genomic medicine into clinical practice are obvious, enabling prediction, prevention, and early diagnosis and treatment of several genetic disorders.
However, there are also some issues, such as those related to: Genomic medicine aims to be predictive, personalized, and preventive, mostly with regard to mendelian inherited disease forms, but also to complex disorders 3. Further, it must be participative, because patients, their at-risk relatives, and the potential consumers of genetic testing should be aware of the pros and cons of this new technology.
Thus, genomic medicine is the art and science of the four Ps 4Ps 4. It is anticipated that genomic medicine may help to improve the quality of life and prolong human survival.
However, the genetic analyses that have been developed and which have been ready to use for some time now, have been underutilized in the past decade 3. Although the fields of genetics and genomics are well established in developed countries, important progress has been made in other countries in recent years, especially in the emerging countries 5.
In order to the increase this development and growth, these countries should immediately begin to tackle essential issues, some of which are discussed below 1 — 4. Reimbursement A crucial issue is the reimbursement of genetic testing by the health insurance companies.
Although the costs of genetic testing are reducing, it remains expensive for most of the population. In addition, an adult positive-mutation carrier may have several at-risk children to be tested. However, extensive data evaluating the economics of genetic testing are lacking http: Hopefully, in the near future, health insurance companies that are established in emerging countries may agree to cover the costs of genetic diagnostic testing of their clients, and thus offer this new technology to patients and their at-risk relatives.
Confidentiality An important issue is the confidentially of genetic test results. Approval of this law was strongly supported by Senator Edward Kennedy, among others http: The law has two parts: In large areas of the world, genetic testing is not properly regulated.
The lack of a GINA-like law in many countries may limit the interest of many healthy individuals and patients in participating in genetic testing.
Presently, the approval of such a law constitutes a major challenge to legislators all over the world. The global approval of antidiscrimination laws would constitute one of the bases for a modern and humanized genomic medicine for the 21st century.
However, genetic testing is a fast-growing field and present laws do not cover every situation http: A critical issue is the routine inclusion of genetic testing results in a person's medical records, with the possibility that these data may be accessed by employers and health insurance companies.
As far as we know, this specific and critical aspect requires further regulation in many countries.Strong Essays words ( pages) The Pros and Cons of Mining User Data to Provide Personalized Recommendations Personalized Medicine Essay - Personalized medicine is a swiftly evolving way of healthcare that customizes treatment to an individuals genetic make-up.
This custom analyzes the molecular profile of each patient to determine. Personalized Medecine Term Paper of the Pros and Cons.
Topics: Medicine The focus of this essay is on the pros, as well as the cons of economic growth. Pros of Economic Growth There are numerous benefits of economic growth.
Firstly, economic growth results in improved public services. A growing economy provides its government with more tax. Genomic medicine aims to be predictive, personalized, and preventive, mostly with regard to mendelian inherited disease forms, but also to complex disorders.
Further, it must be participative, because patients, their at-risk relatives, and the potential consumers of genetic testing should be aware of the pros and cons of this new technology. This paper provides an overview of how modern genetic technology may lead to personalized medicine, and to give examples two or more specific benefits of personalized medicine: a discussion of its drawbacks and limitations of the approach to human medicine.
“Modern Genetic Technology and Personalized Medicine” Modern. Pros and Cons of Genetic Engineering. Genetic engineering entails manipulating an organism’s gene indirectly using techniques such as molecular cloning to alter the nature and structure of genes.
It can change an organism’s characteristics through DNA manipulation. Licastro F, Caruso C. Predictive diagnostics and personalized medicine for the prevention of chronic degenerative diseases[J]. Immun Ageing, , 16(7). Marchant, G. E., Campos-Outcalt, D. E., & .