It has seemed to me worth while to show from the history of civilization just what war has done and has not done for the welfare of mankind. In the eighteenth century it was assumed that the primitive state of mankind was one of Arcadian peace, joy, and contentment. In the nineteenth century the assumption went over to the other extreme — that the primitive state was one of universal warfare. This, like the former notion, is a great exaggeration.
Grants to states and U. However, most of the components of above list are inflexible. Interest payments cannot be reduces unless there is higher growth in the economy.
Pensions are ballooning as there is consistent increase in life expectancy across demographic spectrum of India. In all this, there is significant scope of reduction in subsidies as they are infested rampantly with problem of mis-targeting and leakage.
This can be easily grasped from the fact that just shifting to cash transfers in distribution of subsidized LPG is expected to save annually Rs crore for the exchequer.
Some subsidies led distortion in India: Energy- Groundwater nexus — Agriculture sector is perhaps having most justifiable claim on subsidized inputs given the dismal situation of the farmers in the country.
On these lines, water and electricity for agricultural use are heavily subsidized by state governments. Again, politics seeped into this economic cause and most governments have failed to ensure rational and sustainable use of subsidized water and electricity. Owing to this, in large parts of India, groundwater is being extracted indiscriminately as electric pump consume electricity that is almost free of cost.
This has led to dramatic fall in groundwater levels. Wells have gone dry at numerous places. Water extracted from deep earth often gets contaminated by arsenic mineral. This, together with erratic monsoon due to climate change, has pushed rural India in deep distress.
To remedy this problem, government has plans to separate agriculture feeder network from rest, under Deen Dayal Upadhayay Gram Jyoti Yojna. This separate agriculture feeder will supply electricity only for a few hours a day.
This was first tried by Gujrat and results were encouraging as it had role in making Gujrat a power surplus state, along with arresting continuous decline in groundwater levels. Subsidized fertilizers — Nutrient Based Subsidy or NBS was introduced in with objective to promote balanced use of fertilizers and to limit fertilizer subsidy of the government.
Idea was to fix subsidy as per nutrients in per Kg in the fertilizer and leave the determination of price to suppliers. Presently Urea is not covered under the scheme due to political compulsions.
Consequently subsidized price of Urea remained stagnant even when real costs of production have risen significantly. On the other hand Potassium and Phosphorous are covered under the scheme and a fixed subsidy as per content of nutrients is given to suppliers and they change Maximum Retail Price as per market signals.
Secondary and Micronutrients are also covered under the scheme. Instead this can degrade soil and harm crop. Productivity and quality of a crop depends upon use of diversified mix of macro and micronutrients, which vary from soil to soil. While urea consumption has increased from 59 per cent to 66 per cent of total consumption in overper hectare consumption of fertilizer has declined from kg to kg over the same period.
Large part of this went to production and consumption of urea that was not needed at all. Apart from Urea, farmer is not even getting benefit due from NBS in case of subsidized potassium and phosphorus.
Subsidy is provided to manufacturers, who in turn are responsible to pass this subsidy to farmers in form of reduced retail prices. Rather, manufacturers have increased their prices forming a cartel and have usurped subsidy meant for farmers.
It has plans to penalize and cancel registration wrongdoers.
Another mistargeting of fertilizer is that most of this is consumed by rich farmers of Punjab, Haryana and North West Uttar Pradesh. Uptake of fertilizers depends a lot on sufficient supply of water to the crop. Cultivation of wheat, Rice and sugarcane at cost of pulses, horticulture crops and coarse but nutritious grains — Consumption patterns in India are shifting rapidly from calorie rich diet to protein and vitamin rich one.
Despite this, protein based diet in India is abnormally expensive. Main source of protein for Indian masses is pulses.
Last whole year there was clamour on the issue of skyrocketing prices of pulses. Pulses are most suitable to be grown in areas of Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh, yet large parts of these areas are under cultivation of sugarcane.
This create two problems — one, it deprives Indians of their source of protein; two, these areas are water deficit and sugarcane is water guzzling crop.Hyperspace – A Scientific Odyssey A look at the higher dimensions.
Do higher dimensions exist? Are there unseen worlds just beyond . The problem of rise prices is the greatest economic problem of India today. The constant rise in essay is cutting the throats of millions today because millions of people find it hard to earn one square meal a day.
THIRTY kilometres south of central Chennai, just out of earshot of the honking, hand-painted lorries roaring up Old Mahabalipuram Road, you seem to have reached rural India. Short Essay on Rising Prices. The problem of rising prices is the greatest economic problem of India today.
Rising Prices. The constant rise in prices is cutting the throats of millions today because millions of people find it hard to earn one square meal gcse homework help day.
No doubt it is a baffling problem throughout the world, still a developing country like India can only ill-afford it. Rent-Seeking, Public Choice, and The Prisoner's Dilemma. Mankind soon learn to make interested uses of every right and power which they possess, or may assume.
Say's Law and Supply Side Economics. It should be known that at the beginning of a dynasty, taxation yields a large revenue from small assessments.