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Early life and education[ edit ] Seminole town Lithograph published in John Horse, called Juan as a child, was born around in Florida. He was a Seminole slave of SpanishSeminoleand African descent. John assumed the surname of his father and nominal owner, the Seminole trader Charley Cavallo,  his surname "Horse" being believed to have been a translation of Cavallo or Caballo, the Spanish word for horse.
Charley was, himself, of possibly mixed descent Indian-Spanish parentage.
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The young John also had a sister, Juana sometimes spelled "Wannah" or "Warner" in some sources. Not much is known about Charley Cavallo although it does not appear that he treated either of his two mixed-race children as slaves.
At that time he and Juana were probably living with their mother in one of the black settlements affiliated with, and under the jurisdiction of, the Alachua band of Oconee Seminole along the Suwannee River.
When the American General Andrew Jackson invaded the area,  he scattered the tribal peoples and their black allies in the region,  destroying settlements  and seizing blacks from among the Seminole for removal to the north to be returned to plantation slavery.
He also became proficient with bow and arrow and with a rifle, developing a reputation in later life as a keen marksman  with a steady hand in combat.
Unlike many of his fellows, however, he also learned to read and write and acquired linguistic skills in English, Spanish and the Hitchiti tongue spoken by the Oconee and many other Seminole bands. We can presume that he was also conversant with Muscogee, the tongue of the Upper Creek Indians from whom the great Seminole war chief, Osceola hailed because, in his adult years, he would be one of Osceola's main translators when dealing with the Americans though Osceola, himself, spoke some English .
Seminole Wars[ edit ] Fort Brooke at Tampa Bay The First Seminole War — occurred during Horse's childhood and the youngster, along with his sister and mother, was probably among those displaced blacks who fled south of the Suwannee River toward Tampa Bay.
John Horse first enters the written record in a short narrative by the officer in charge, Major George M. Brookewho discovered the young Seminole black had been swindling his personal cook by selling him the same land turtle, or tortoise a so-called "gopher"multiple times for the major's personal mess.
Discovering the young boy's fraud, Brooke opted for leniency and let John go on condition he make good on the missing turtles which he apparently did. At first a translator for the Indian leaders  since few of them spoke English while their black allies didhe also became a lower level war chief.
Army   as the war dragged on and open battles in the field gave way to guerrilla tactics and a long war of attrition. The blacks in the war received promises of freedom if they would cease fighting as Indian allies and accept resettlement in the newly established Indian Territory west of the Mississippi.
Horse was later granted papers freeing him a second time by General William J. Worth for the services he subsequently rendered to the U.
Army in the latter days of the Second Seminole War in Florida, as both translator and scout. Thus John Horse's claim to freedom from slavery would rest on at least two legal claims, via decisions by two different American military officers. This would eventually be important as events unfolded a few years later in the west.
This document gives a chronology of computing at Columbia University, as best I can piece it together, written mainly in Jan-Feb , updated periodically since then (time of last update listed above). Myth statement Status Notes An electromagnet hidden in a wristwatch can deflect bullets. Based on Bond's wristwatch in Live and Let Die.: Busted Jamie built an electromagnet that could fit inside a wristwatch and mounted it near a target. habitat conservation plan for the stephens' kangaroo rat in western riverside county, california.
Unfortunately, Horse's second wife and their children, who were removed to Indian Territory with him, did not gain freedom through his later service and had only the earlier declaration by Jesup to fall back on, thus remaining at risk from the increasingly aggressive activities of slave catchers in the new Indian Territory.
There he and his family joined with the other Seminole and Black Seminole who had accepted removal to take up residence at one of two locations assigned to the Seminole inside the Creek area. Life in Indian Territory[ edit ] New conflicts and old issues[ edit ] In the new territory, John Horse worked sporadically for the army as an interpreter and, sometimes, as an intermediary for the officers and the Indian leaders.
In Indian Territory again, the exiled Seminole leadership finally voted freedom for John Horse, too, around the year in light of his services to the Seminole during their lengthy war.
At the time the main chief, Micanopy Mico Nuppa had nominal ownership over him. It was Micanopy, in concert with his council, who finally granted the black warrior his freedom from any claims of enslavement against him which the tribe still had.
Thus John Horse had been freed three times: Only the first of these actions applied to John Horse's second wife, Susan daughter of the black leader July  and their children, however, and that action would soon come into serious question.
Conflict arose in the Territory because the transplanted Seminole had been placed on land allocated to the Creek Indians  since the U. Because the Creek had adopted the American institution of chattel slavery  while the Seminole had not done the same  they lived in very different waysthe presence of free blacks among the Seminole on Creek land and under the nominal sovereignty of the Creek tribal council, caused friction between the two groups.
The free blacks threatened the Creek slave-holding status quo, because their very existence tempted the Creeks' own slaves to challenge their status, and provided a tempting target for Creek and affiliated groups seeking to acquire more slaves.
Creek slavers and those from other Indian groups, and some whites, soon began raiding the Black Seminole settlements  to kidnap and enslave anyone they could get their hands on, and John Horse quickly became a focal point for organizing resistance to these encroachments as well as lead spokesman for his fellow Black Seminoles.
In one case, when some slavers succeeded in capturing Dembo Factor  a veteran of the Seminole War, John Horse and his on-again, off-again ally, Coacoochee Wild Catwho had hopes of succeeding Micanopy as leader of all the Seminole and who opposed living under the Creek, protested.
The Army, responding to their concerns, demanded and got Factor's release but neither they nor the Creek tribal council pursued charges of kidnapping against the suspected slavers.
The slave raids continued as tensions mounted. Failing to secure the backing they needed, they returned to Indian Territory, but Horse traveled once more to Washington, this time on his own acting as servant to an officer's brother to lobby General Jesup to live up to his earlier promises. Jesup was sympathetic and probably felt a little guilty for having been instrumental in the treachery that took Osceola off the field and led to that chief's death.
However he could not overcome political resistance in Washington where pressure was growing to reverse his grant of freedom to the blacks who came in voluntarily. Army to arrange for the construction of new facilities at Fort Gibsonthe army's headquarters in the Territory.
He also offered them work on the grounds of Fort Gibson on a construction project he had initiated. As a result, large numbers of Seminole blacks left the two Seminole settlements, Deep Fork and Little River, to re-settle outside the fort's walls under army protection.
Once the work was done, however, the blacks chose to remain because of the ongoing predations of Creek, Cherokee and so-called half breed slave catchers, creating yet another flash point of contention with the army and the slaver gangs.The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables.
Prof. Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. Angelo Arezzi. heartoftexashop.com, Sr. Director Project Management Sessions: Omnichannel and the Future Ahead: Planning for Tomorrow, Today Angelo Arezzi is a veteran of the call center industry starting his professional career with PenTeleData a regional internet provider and .
John Horse, called Juan as a child, was born around in Florida. He was a Seminole slave of Spanish, Seminole, and African descent. He lived initially in the region that came to be called Micanopy after the last head chief of the Florida Seminole in north central Florida.
John assumed the surname of his father and nominal owner, the Seminole trader Charley Cavallo, his surname "Horse. Acronym expansions, definitions, links, and opinions.
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