Remaining Nazi Sites in Berlin 2 'New' Synagogue and former Jewish Hospital The Jewish Synagogue, shown three years after the war and today, was miraculously saved from destruction during Kristallnacht by- it was claimed at the time- the chief of the local police station, Wilhelm Krutzfeld. When he arrived at the scene, he presented the building charter showing that the synagogue had been opened by Otto von Bismark himself.
This article is part of a series marking the launch of The Conversation in Africa. Our foundation essays are longer than our usual comment and analysis articles and take a wider look at key issues affecting society.
African national borders are afflicted by a multitude of troubles that straddle villages and communities. These can include military skirmishes, cattle rustling, terrorism, secessionist movements, smuggling, ethnic violence, people trafficking, irredentism and agrarian revolts.
Border disputes have been a reality on the continent through the millennia. Precolonial Africa was hardly a setting of harmony and bliss between African peoples.
Most kingdoms paid attention to territorial control and did adapt some precise boundaries. But border disputes are not the preserve of Africa, as the recent conflict between the Ukraine and Russia attests. But Africa certainly has its own peculiar set of problems, most by dint of the Berlin Conference which partitioned the continent into lucrative pieces for the colonisers.
But the conference never meant to achieve a meaningful delimitation of Africa. As Lord Salisbury admitted not only was the delimitation largely arbitrarybut the mapping exercise was far from a precise art.
Pre-independence Africa watched Europeans: Today, close to active border disputes exist across the continent. Rising nationalism, population and environmental pressures mean that the situation is likely to get worse.
Unless, that is, an army of indigenous peace practitioners work closely with available pan-Africanist leaders and statesmen to douse and resolve tensions.
Tensions abound - north, south, east and west In East Africa there are tensions between a number of countries. Recent West African boundaries and borders disputes include: In North Africa, boundary disputes and contested territories abound. Examples include Moroccan claims over Spanish territories of Ceuta and Melilla.
There is the long-lasting Morocco and Mauritania struggle against the Polisario Frontwhile Libya and Algeria have intervened in favour of the Saharan national liberation movement. Algeria and Morocco accuse each other of harbouring militants and condoning arms smuggling.
Libya appears to claim about 32, sq km that apparently is under Algerian control.
Sudan claims, but Egypt de facto administers, security and economic development of the Halaib region north of the 22nd parallel boundary.THE two main reasons are the financial crisis of and the rise of China. The damage the crisis did was psychological as well as financial. WURST-CASE SCENARIO German deputy finance minister Jörg Asmussen, at a vestige of the Berlin Wall.
The curtain wall, one of architecture's most provocative metaphors, is surprisingly difficult to pin down with a precise definition. Because it can be examined from multiple perspectives — (1) in terms of functional relationships, (2) as an aesthetic object, or (3) as a mass-produced system available within the construction marketplace — some .
WURST-CASE SCENARIO German deputy finance minister Jörg Asmussen, at a vestige of the Berlin Wall. Apr 06, · On April 28, — 73 years ago — Italians hung the corpse of their former dictator Benito Mussolini upside down next to a gas station in Milan.
The Berlin Wall stood for 10, days. As of Feb. 5, , it has now been breached for over 10, days. From now on, Berlin will live with the memory of the wall for longer than it lived with.