This is a common question that many students ask me. To know whether you should put your opinion in your essay or not, you should read the instructions given by IELTS. IELTS very carefully for each task.
It is especially true of AST transformations which will generate code based on annotations. Annotation placement An annotation can be applied on various elements of the code: For example, here is how you would declare that an annotation can be applied to a class or a method: Annotation member values When an annotation is used, it is required to set at least all members that do not have a default value.
Retention policy The visibility of an annotation depends on its retention policy. The retention policy of an annotation is set using the Retention annotation: The choice usually depends on whether you want an annotation to be visible at compile time or runtime.
Closure annotation parameters An interesting feature of annotations in Groovy is that you can use a closure as an annotation value. Therefore annotations may be used with a wide variety of expressions and still have IDE support.
For example, imagine a framework where you want to execute some methods based on environmental constraints like the JDK version or the OS. One could write the following Written task 2 orientation It will return a boolean 9 if it is true, call the method 10 if the method is not annotated with OnlyIf, execute the method anyway 11 after that, return the task object Then the runner can be used this way: Meta-annotations Declaring meta-annotations Meta-annotations, also known as annotation aliases are annotations that are replaced at compile time by other annotations one meta-annotation is an alias for one or more annotations.
Meta-annotations can be used to reduce the size of code involving multiple annotations. For example, we might want to write this instead: In our case, the TransactionalService annotation can be written: Meta-annotations are a Groovy-only feature.
There is no chance for you to annotate a Java class with a meta-annotation and hope it will do the same as in Groovy. Likewise, you cannot write a meta-annotation in Java: But you can happily collect Java annotations and Groovy annotations within your meta-annotation.
In addition to replacing the alias with the collected annotations, a meta-annotation is capable of processing them, including arguments. Meta-annotation parameters Meta-annotations can collect annotations which have parameters.
To illustrate this, we will imagine two annotations, each of them accepting one argument: More interesting, the meta-annotation supports overriding specific values: It is a compile time error if the collected annotations define the same members with incompatible types.
For example if on the previous example Foo defined a value of type String but Bar defined a value of type int. It is however possible to customize the behavior of meta-annotations and describe how collected annotations are expanded.
Handling duplicate annotations The AnnotationCollector annotation supports a mode parameter which can be used to alter how the default processor handles annotation replacement in the presence of duplicate annotations.
Custom processors discussed next may or may not support this parameter. As an example, suppose you create a meta-annotation containing the ToString annotation and then place your meta-annotation on a class that already has an explicit ToString annotation. Should this be an error?
Should both annotations be applied? Does one take priority over the other? There is no correct answer. In some scenarios it might be quite appropriate for any of these answers to be correct.
Having said that, by simply setting the mode, a number of commonly expected scenarios are handled automatically for you within any extra coding. The behavior of the mode parameter is determined by the AnnotationCollectorMode enum value chosen and is summarized in the following table.This chapter covers the object orientation of the Groovy programming language.
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